Nov 21, 2023 3 mins

Python Inheritance, Encapsulation, and Polymorphism

Python Inheritance, Encapsulation, and Polymorphism Python Inheritance, Encapsulation, and Polymorphism

In the realm of Python programming, understanding inheritance, encapsulation, and polymorphism is vital for mastering object-oriented principles. These concepts empower developers to create efficient and reusable code structures. Let's delve into each of these concepts individually, exploring their significance and practical implementations in Python.

Understanding Python Inheritance

In Python, inheritance allows a class to inherit attributes and methods from another class, enabling code reusability and promoting a hierarchical structure. Consider a scenario where we have a base class called Animal, and subclasses like Dog and Cat that inherit from it. Here, Dog and Cat inherit characteristics like sound and move from the Animal class, showcasing the power of inheritance in Python.

class Animal:
    def sound(self):
        print("Some sound")

    def move(self):
        print("Moves around")

class Dog(Animal):
    def sound(self):

class Cat(Animal):
    def sound(self):

Exploring Encapsulation in Python

Encapsulation in Python refers to the bundling of data and methods that operate on the data within a single unit, typically a class. It promotes data hiding and prevents direct access to sensitive data from outside the class. By using access modifiers like public, private, and protected, developers can control the visibility of attributes and methods.

  • Public: Attributes and methods marked as public are accessible from outside the class. They can be accessed directly by instances of the class or by other classes.
  • Protected: Attributes and methods marked as protected are intended to be used within the class itself and its subclasses. Although they can still be accessed from outside the class, it is considered a convention not to do so.
  • Private: Attributes and methods marked as private are inaccessible from outside the class. They can only be accessed within the class itself and are intended for internal use only.
class Person:
    def __init__(self, name, age): = name          # Public attribute
        self._age = age           # Protected attribute
        self.__address = "None"   # Private attribute

    def display_info(self):
        print(f"Name: {}")
        print(f"Age: {self._age}")
        print(f"Address: {self.__address}")

    def update_address(self, new_address):
        self.__address = new_address

In this example, name is a public attribute accessible outside the class. _age is a protected attribute, denoted by a single underscore, implying that it should be treated as private but can still be accessed outside the class. __address is a private attribute, denoted by double underscores, making it inaccessible from outside the class without using name mangling.

Implementing Polymorphism in Python

Polymorphism allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass. It promotes flexibility and extensibility in code by enabling functions to work with objects of multiple types. In Python, polymorphism can be achieved through method overriding and method overloading.


class Shape:
    def area(self):

class Rectangle(Shape):
    def __init__(self, length, width):
        self.length = length
        self.width = width

    def area(self):
        return self.length * self.width

class Circle(Shape):
    def __init__(self, radius):
        self.radius = radius

    def area(self):
        return 3.14 * self.radius ** 2


In conclusion, Python’s support for inheritance, encapsulation, and polymorphism lays a strong foundation for building robust and scalable applications. By leveraging these object-oriented concepts effectively, developers can write cleaner, more maintainable code and foster code reuse across projects.


Q: What is the difference between encapsulation and abstraction?
A: While encapsulation involves bundling data and methods within a class to control access, abstraction focuses on hiding the implementation details and exposing only the necessary features.

Q: Can we achieve polymorphism without inheritance in Python?
A: Yes, Python supports polymorphism through both inheritance and duck typing, where objects are evaluated based on their behavior rather than their type hierarchy.


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