Nov 10, 2023 2 mins

4 Different Methods for Dictionary Concatenation in Python

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ython is powerful programming language, offers several methods for concatenating dictionaries. In this article, we'll delve into four distinct approaches, each with its own advantages and use cases.

Using the update Method

One of the simplest ways to concatenate dictionaries in Python is by using the update method. This method merges the keys and values of one dictionary into another. Here’s an example:

dict1 = {'a': 1, 'b': 2}
dict2 = {'b': 3, 'c': 4}


In this example, dict1 is updated with the key-value pairs from dict2. The output will be {'a': 1, 'b': 3, 'c': 4}. While this method is straightforward, it modifies the original dictionary in place.

Using {**d1, **d2} Syntax (Python 3.5 and later)

Starting from Python 3.5, a concise syntax for concatenating dictionaries using unpacking was introduced. The {**d1, **d2} syntax allows you to merge two dictionaries without modifying either of the original dictionaries. Here’s an example:

dict1 = {'a': 1, 'b': 2}
dict2 = {'b': 3, 'c': 4}

merged_dict = {**dict1, **dict2}

In this case, merged_dict contains the concatenated key-value pairs from dict1 and dict2. The output will be {'a': 1, 'b': 3, 'c': 4}. This method is concise and creates a new dictionary, leaving the original dictionaries unchanged.

Using dict() Constructor

The dict() constructor, when combined with the ** unpacking syntax, provides another way to concatenate dictionaries. Here’s an example:

dict1 = {'a': 1, 'b': 2}
dict2 = {'b': 3, 'c': 4}

merged_dict = dict(**dict1, **dict2)

Similar to the previous example, this method creates a new dictionary (merged_dict) containing the combined key-value pairs. The output will be {'a': 1, 'b': 3, 'c': 4}. Like the unpacking syntax, this approach preserves the original dictionaries.

Using ChainMap from collections Module

The collections module in Python provides the ChainMap class, which allows for dictionary concatenation. Here’s how you can use it:

from collections import ChainMap

dict1 = {'a': 1, 'b': 2}
dict2 = {'b': 3, 'c': 4}

merged_dict = dict(ChainMap(dict1, dict2))

In this example, ChainMap combines the dictionaries, and the resulting merged_dict contains the key-value pairs from both dict1 and dict2. The output will be {'a': 1, 'b': 2, 'c': 4}. ChainMap is particularly useful when you want to view multiple dictionaries as a single entity without creating a new dictionary.


In conclusion, Python provides multiple methods for concatenating dictionaries, each with its own strengths. The update method is simple and modifies the original dictionary in place. On the other hand, the unpacking syntax ({**d1, **d2}) and the dict() constructor create new dictionaries, preserving the original ones. Finally, the ChainMap class is beneficial when you want to work with multiple dictionaries as a unified structure.

The choice of method depends on the specific requirements of your code and your preferred coding style. Whether you prioritize simplicity, immutability, or a combination of both, Python’s flexibility ensures that you can select the dictionary concatenation method that best suits your needs.


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